Periodontitis is primarily caused by the formation of plaque and tartar. Plaque is formed by bacteria that accumulate at the base of the tooth crown, i.e., right at the border with the periodontium. With inadequate oral hygiene, bacteria grow very quickly and the plaque gradually calcifies, resulting in the formation of tartar. The tartar that forms irritates the gums and damages tissue continuity, causing the gums to separate from the teeth and expose sensitive tooth necks. Bacteria from the exfoliating epithelium in the mouth, as well as from food and the environment, have the opportunity to penetrate the spaces created by the gum irritation. The development of bacteria causes an unpleasant odor from the mouth, damage to the roots of the teeth, sensitivity of the teeth to cold and hot foods and drinks and touch, even with a toothbrush. Bleeding, soreness may occur during oral hygiene procedures. Damage to gum tissue promotes the development of periodontitis. In the case of untreated periodontal damage, even gum ulcers may develop, and as a result of damage to tooth roots and periodontal tissue, there is a risk of tooth loss.
A periodontist’s role is to treat periodontal diseases such as periodontitis and periodontal inflammation, but also to carry out preventive measures. When you notice bleeding gums while brushing your teeth, experience pain while eating ice cream, sweets or drinking hot coffee, it is a good idea to see a periodontist as early as possible to treat your periodontal problems before periodontitis develops. The periodontist will assess whether surgical treatment is necessary and instruct you on how to properly care for your mouth to prevent the problem from developing.